The G20 summit in India saw world leaders coming together to adopt a joint declaration, marking a significant step towards global cooperation and diplomacy. However, Ukraine expressed disappointment over the declaration’s failure to name Russia or directly criticise its role in the ongoing conflict.

The absence of two notable leaders, Russia’s Vladimir Putin and China’s Xi Jinping, did not go unnoticed during the two-day event. One significant development was the African Union’s inclusion as a permanent member of the group.

In a symbolic transition of leadership, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi passed the G20 presidency to Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. This marked the conclusion of Modi’s tenure as the head of the G20.

Recent polls conducted before and during the G20 summit indicate that a majority of Indians believe that global respect for India has increased during Narendra Modi’s time as prime minister. A Pew Research Centre poll showed that both Modi and India’s global influence are viewed favourably within the country, reflecting the positive perception of his leadership on the international stage.

A domestic poll conducted by CSDS-NDTV revealed that 54% of respondents consider India to be a world leader under Modi’s leadership, while 27% disagreed. These numbers highlight the polarization of opinions within India regarding its role on the global stage.

Many observers see the G20 summit as an unofficial start to the campaign for the upcoming general election next year. Narendra Modi’s image was prominently displayed on G20 posters throughout Delhi and other parts of the country, underscoring the political significance of the event in the context of India’s domestic politics. Under Modi’s leadership, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) has won two consecutive general elections, solidifying its position as the dominant political force in India.

British Prime Minister Rishi Sunak used the G20 summit as an opportunity to express “significant concerns about Chinese interference in the UK’s parliamentary democracy” to China’s Premier Li Qiang.

Brazil has outlined its priorities for its presidency in 2024, which include addressing poverty, sustainable development, and advocating for reform in global governance structures, such as the International Monetary Fund and the UN Security Council.

Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva Brazil has assured that Russian President Vladimir Putin would not face arrest if he attended the G20 summit scheduled to be held in Rio de Janeiro next year. This assurance addresses concerns related to international diplomacy and the participation of world leaders in the event. Vladimir Putin’s absence from multiple international gatherings, including the G20 summits in Delhi and Bali, has raised questions about his willingness to engage in multilateral diplomacy.

Looking ahead, the G20 presidency is set to be held by South Africa in 2025 and the United States in 2026, as announced during the summit.

On Saturday, leaders of India, Brazil, South Africa, and the United States met on the sidelines of the summit and issued a joint statement emphasising their commitment to addressing global challenges. The four countries reiterated their dedication to the G20 as the primary platform for international economic cooperation.

Following the conclusion of the G20 summit, US President Joe Biden was the first to depart from India.